My involvement in the Mount Royal Community Association began as a concern for pedestrians and cyclists on our community roads. At the time, the perception was that vehicles were traveling at unsafe speeds, more than the marked speed limit. When speed was brought forward to city police, who stated that in previous efforts to enforce, the majority, were, in fact, driving within the speed posted on the street. A subsequent meeting with Alderman John Mar ended with a similar response. I would come back to my community and find myself shaking my head while impatient drivers tailgated, honked horns, shook fists, refused to yield and in one situation, collided into my SUV while I yielded to allow him to pass.
It wasn’t until a very tragic accident early this summer involving a 12-year-old boy that I realized the broader scope of the issue. The 12-year-old boy was thrown a considerable distance, up a steep hill and the SUV was unable to stop until only a few meters short of a full block. The injuries sustained by the boy were extensive, and he passed over the following day. My immediate reaction when I viewed the scene was that the SUV had traveled at considerable speed, much higher than the speed limit. I was quickly assured that in fact what I witnessed was indicative of 50km an hour. I was mortified. Upset, angry and in disbelief, all I could say was, “If this is 50k, then 50k is not okay!”
That afternoon, I began to drive the community. I drove the hill where the accident occurred, and I continued to drive other streets, monitoring my speed in relationship to what I felt was comfortable. What I discovered is I rarely exceeded 30km per hour, and in most cases, traveled less than 30km an hour.
It then occurred to me that what was happening wasn’t so much that people were “speeding,” but that the speed that was considered acceptable was a good deal faster than I was driving, and too fast for a residential street. From this realization, I began to research and soon found that studies supporting my observation, already existed in almost every country in every part of the world. I have included a synopsis of only a few.
NHMRC Road Accident Research Unit
Relationship of Vehicle Speed to Odds of Pedestrian Death in Collision
A study conducted in miles per hour, converted to kilometers per hour and numbers maintained for absolute accuracy. (full document available – click here)
[Source 1: Killing Speed and Saving Lives, UK Dept. of Transportation, London, England. See also Limpert, Rudolph. Motor Vehicle Accident Reconstruction and Cause Analysis. Fourth Edition. Charlottesville, VA. The Michie Company, 1994, p. 663.]
[Source 2: Vehicle Speeds and the Incidence of Fatal Pedestrian Collisions prepared by the Austrailian Federal Office of Road Safety, Report CR 146, October 1994, by McLean AJ,Anderson RW, Farmer MJB, Lee BH, Brooks CG.]
Deputy Chief Coroner of Ontario-Traffic / Pedestrian Fatality Study
In a 2010 study conducted by the Deputy Chief Coroner of Ontario, Dr. Bert Lauwers, said that speed kills, and it is an inescapable fact, citing that statistics show a pedestrian struck by a vehicle traveling 50 km/hr is FIVE TIMES more likely to die than if hit at 30 km/hr. “The data are irrefutable. The higher the rate of speed at which a pedestrian is struck, the greater the chance of death.” (full report available click here)
Key findings in the Pedestrian Death Review relation to speed and fatality on residential roads listed below:
- 67% of deaths occurred on roads posted with speeds beyond 50k/hour, and only 5% of roads below 50km/hr. For the remainder, speed was unknown.
- 76% of fatalities occurred in urban areas, and 75% happened on wide, busy arterial roads.
Recommendations in his report include:
- reducing speed limits to 30 km/hr on residential streets;
- adopting speed limits of 40 km/hr on other roads unless otherwise posted
The City of Helsinki, Finland-Traffic / Pedestrian Fatality Study
Results from a report produced by the Helsinki City Planning Department, Finland, (full report available – click here) states that “a speed of 50 km/hr increases the risk of a pedestrian death almost eight-fold compared to 30 km/hr. The graph below demonstrates the collision speed and probability of death.
A common argument by drivers who are against lowering speeds in residential areas is an increase in travel time. However, the same study shows that a decrease in speed has minimal effect, while the probability of death for the pedestrian increases significantly. This is because drivers, regardless of speed, will be required to stop and wait at lights as well as other expected obstructions. Therefore, speeding through residential areas accomplishes very little, while creating a higher risk for those who live, walk and cycle in the community.
The Finish study found that by lowering the speed limit to 30 km/hr on residential streets, COMBINED with effective speed camera enforcement, would reduce the pedestrian accident costs by 70 percent. The report concludes that 30km/hr in residential communities combined with speed-camera enforcement is the “cheapest and only quick measure to strongly reduce the number of serious pedestrian accidents in wide urban areas.” – source: Helsinki City Planning Department Traffic Planning Division
U. S. Department of Transportation – National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Traffic / Pedestrian Fatality Review
A report published by the United States Department of Transportation in October of 1999, stated that its findings were similar to what was determined by a UK report, which is as follows.
- 20 mph (32 km per hour) impact speeds: 5 percent death, 65 percent injured, and 30 percent uninjured
- 30 mph (48 km per hour) impact speeds: 45 percent death, 50 percent injured, and 5 percent uninjured
- 40 mph (64 km per hour) impact speeds: 85 percent death and 15 percent injured.
Links (click to view):
The above studies were included to demonstrate that regardless of when or where in the world a pedestrian – traffic speed and safety study was conducted, the findings support that 50km an hour is disproportionately more deadly than 30 km hour.
When I directed the 50k/30k fatality statistics to the Minister of Transportation through social media, his response was, “Respectfully, avoiding collisions is the answer at any speed. #lookbothways #holdkidshands #mutualrespect – Ric McIver
** Final note – Airdrie has a 30km/hr on all residential streets as of a bylaw passed in the 1980’s. The only difference between school zones and regular is the size of the fine.
“Those refusing to comply with speed limits either don’t believe in the influence of driving speed on impact speed or just don’t care at all. Due to this ‘rejection front,’ it must be proven in every country that the laws of Isaac Newton are true.”
FH Walz, M Hoefliger and W Fehlmann, 1983.
Below are photo taken randomly on streets which are considered 50km/hr – keeping in mind that Macleod Trail is 60km/hr. Quite a contrast.